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Discovery AI

Exploration into the world of AI chatbots

With the release of tools like ChatGPT and Midjourney, people from all backgrounds, industries, and generations are engaging with AI, primarily through chat interfaces. We all know that AI is driving a profound change in the way we interact with information, products, and each other—but no one knows exactly where we’ll end up. We’ve been designing and building digital experiences for over a decade, pioneering uses of new technologies (remember when responsive design was the next big thing?), and AI is the latest chapter. As part of our ongoing AI experimentation and research, we created a chatbot trained on a custom knowledge base.

What We Did

  • Research & Development
  • AI Implementation
  • Web Development
  • User Testing

What We Made

  • Chatbot prototype
AI chatbot conversation demonstration.

⚠️ This chatbot, although trained on MIT admissions information, is not officially affiliated with MIT nor is it deployed on their websites. Visuals presented here should not be considered as an official source for admissions information. ⚠️

Why a chatbot?

So far, one of the most promising, foundational uses for AI is as a chat-driven search tool. The core concept is familiar to anyone who’s ever used a smartphone; we communicate with chatbots by exchanging messages.

Unlike a traditional search experience, there are no toggles, checkboxes, or other settings that refine the results—and slow you down. But an intuitive, seamless search experience is only as good as its answers. We wanted to know: How do we answer accurately and responsibly? What is a helpful response to questions without answers? Should our chatbot be limited to the knowledge base? How do we detect and fix errors?

To provide parameters for these critical questions, we anchored our experiment to a real use case with real information. We consulted with Chris Peterson from MIT to build an experimental admissions chatbot for

AI chatbot conversation demonstration.
AI chatbot conversation demonstration.
AI chatbot conversation demonstration.

Finding our approach

Recent advancements have made it possible to adapt AI to our own needs without the costly and time-consuming process of training our own models. One such method is fine-tuning, in which we teach a pre-trained model a new task, also known as transfer learning. Instead of the general-purpose ChatGPT we’re familiar with, we can enforce a specific behavior—generate proper CSV, write a contract, or even compose a haiku.

Our chatbot, however, needs to answer questions based on the knowledge base we provide. While fine-tuning teaches a new task, retrieval augmented generation (RAG) differs from fine-tuning in one fundamental way: it teaches new information. Crafting an effective prompt includes clear instructions for the AI, examples for how its responses should be formatted and most importantly the information with which it should answer the user’s question. This approach offers the simplest and most flexible way of customizing AI with new information.

Diagram of AI chatbot coding process.

Choosing the right tools

There will always be newer and shinier tools, but a proof of concept was all we needed, so we prioritized choosing basic ones that would get us building early. OpenAI has made their proprietary models easily accessible. Pinecone provides an effortless API for its managed vector databases. Those, along with the flexibility that RAG affords us and popular tools like LangChain, got us to a fully functional chatbot, capable of answering questions and citing relevant sources, within one week.

Conscientious content

Like most of our work, content is a big piece of the puzzle. We scraped the pages of to create “vector embeddings” or mathematical representations of the texts’ semantic meaning. Extracting information from embeddings that are most relevant to the user’s question, known as semantic search, improves the quality of our RAG approach.

Diagram of AI chatbot coding process.

While AI models are entirely capable of working with raw, unstructured data, it’s worthwhile to synthesize the data. Ensuring each chunk of information in our RAG prompt makes semantic sense and is directly relevant to the chatbot’s tasks can optimize performance, reduce costs, and minimize the odds of ‘hallucinations.’ After all, a chatbot is only as good as the data we give it access to. For products looking to leverage AI, content strategy and editorial process need careful consideration.

Admissions page for MIT.
AI chatbot conversation demonstration.

Responsible AI

AI can ‘break’ silently. Unlike obvious, application-breaking bugs in typical software, erroneous answers can slip by unnoticed. AI optimizes its response based on mathematical probabilities, learned from its training dataset. Biases and misinformation originating from OpenAI’s training dataset, for example, can carry through to ChatGPT’s answers without careful curation and supervision. A little prompt engineering in our RAG approach, which confines the AI to trusted sources of information, helps mitigate but doesn’t entirely eliminate these issues when the inner workings of AI, especially those of proprietary models, are opaque by nature and non-deterministic by design.

Our work has a real impact on the ways people vote, stay informed, or pursue higher education. Tolerance for misinformation should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis; errors are far more problematic when answering high-stakes questions about admission requirements versus answering more casual questions about extracurricular clubs. Affordances communicating the potential for misinformation, human feedback mechanisms, and monitoring are all key ingredients to responsible AI applications.

AI chatbot conversation demonstration.

Test early, often, and openly

Refining the chatbot was half the battle. As soon as we had a working chatbot, we gave everyone at Upstatement access to the prototype as part of a studio-wide QA (a common practice at Upstatement!). We made numerous improvements—our chatbot now responds in greater detail, operates only in the relevant subject matter, makes conclusions from explicit information only, and provides helpful follow-ups to questions without answers. Establishing a tight feedback loop early in the process helps us find the boundaries we want to set for a product as nebulous as AI.

AI chatbot conversation demonstration.
AI chatbot conversation demonstration.
AI chatbot conversation demonstration.

Part of a greater solution

As we learn about the ways AI works, we’re noticing that above all, it’s flexible. AI isn’t an all-or-nothing solution. There’s a vast range of adoption that organizations can take, from a simple semantic search to a full-fledged chatbot. As thought partners to our clients and their brands, organizations, and platforms, our practice goes beyond building technical AI solutions. A significant part of our job comes before that: determining their appropriate place on the AI-adoption spectrum. Like so many technologies and tools, moderation, strategic thought, and responsible implementation are key.

We’ll be sharing more detailed insights around our chatbot soon, along with takeaways from our other initiatives intended to demystify and leverage AI.

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